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Chechen sources said that the letter was coated with "a fast-acting nerve agent, possibly sarin or a derivative ". On 13 February , Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev , who served as acting president of the breakaway Chechen Republic of Ichkeria between and , was killed when a bomb ripped through his SUV in the Qatari capital, Doha. Yandarbiyev was seriously wounded and died in hospital. His year-old son Daud was seriously injured.
One of them, the first secretary of the Russian Embassy in Qatar, Aleksandr Fetisov, was released in March due to his diplomatic status and the remaining two, the GRU agents Anatoly Yablochkov also known as Belashkov and Vasily Pugachyov sometimes misspelled as Bogachyov , were charged with the assassination of Yandarbiyev, an assassination attempt of his son Daud Yandarbiyev, and smuggling weapons into Qatar.
The agents however received a heroes' welcome on returning to Moscow in January but disappeared from public view shortly afterwards. The Russian prison authorities admitted in February that they were not in jail, but said that a sentence handed down in Qatar was "irrelevant" in Russia. On 10 July Shamil Basayev , a Chechen militant leader who was alleged to be responsible for numerous guerrilla attacks on security forces in and around Chechnya    and the Moscow theater hostage crisis and described by ABC News as "one of the most-wanted terrorists in the world",  was killed by an explosion near the border of North Ossetia in the village of Ali-Yurt, Ingushetia , a republic bordering Chechnya.
According to the official version of Basayev's death, the FSB , following him with a drone , spotted his car approach a truck laden with explosives that the FSB had prepared, and by remote control triggered a detonator in the explosives. Alexander Litvinenko was poisoned with polonium , which a public inquiry in the UK concluded was carried out by FSB agents. US and UK intelligence agents reportedly say they believe Russian assassins and possibly the Russian government could have been behind at least fourteen targeted killings on British soil, which were dismissed as non-suspicious by UK police.
Ukrainian authorities have blamed Russian security services for multiple killings in Ukraine. The Russian government is alleged by the British government of being behind a failed assassination attempt on Sergei Skripal and his daughter using a Novichok agent. This article is construed as prohibiting assassination, proscription, or outlawry of an enemy, or putting a price upon an enemy's head, as well as offering a reward for an enemy "dead or alive".
It does not, however, preclude attacks on individual soldiers or officers of the enemy whether in the zone of hostilities, occupied territory, or elsewhere. Daniel Reisner, who headed the International Legal Division of the Israeli Military Advocate General's Office from to ,  has stated that although targeted killing is illegal under previous understanding of international law, "If you do something for long enough, the world will accept it.
The whole of international law is now based on the notion that an act that is forbidden today becomes permissible if executed by enough countries. We invented the targeted assassination thesis and we had to push it. At first there were protrusions that made it hard to insert easily into the legal moulds. Eight years later it is in the center of the bounds of legitimacy.
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Georgetown Law Professor and former U. Marine , Gary Solis , has argued that under certain conditions, " Assassinations and targeted killings are very different acts. Abraham Sofaer , a former legal advisor to the U. State Department and fellow at the conservative Hoover Institution think tank, has written that targeted killing is "sometimes necessary, because leaders are obliged to defend their citizens". After the killing of Hamas founder and quadriplegic Ahmed Yassin by Israeli helicopter gunships, Sofaer argued that targeted killing is not prohibited by American Executive Order banning assassination: "killings in self-defense are no more 'assassinations' in international affairs than they are murders when undertaken by our police forces against domestic killers.
Sofaer had previously argued during the First Gulf War that targeted killing was ethical but impractical: "Targeted killing will also invite revenge against the leaders who order it as well as their citizens and property. Given the legal, political and moral constraints that limit such activities in democratic regimes, the United States has a substantial interest in discouraging acceptance of the killing of political leaders as a routine measure, even in self-defense.
Author and former U. Army Captain Matthew J. Morgan has argued, "there is a major difference between assassination and targeted killing Colonol and commander of the IDF school of military law, now Professor of law at the University of Utah, has written, "targeted killing is American defense department analyst and professor Thomas Hunter has defined targeted killing as the "premeditated, preemptive, and intentional killing of an individual or individuals known or believed to represent a present or future threat to the safety and security of a state through the affiliation with terrorist groups or individuals.
It only states that the President has the "authority to use all necessary and appropriate force" this could be interpreted to mean that the President can attack al-Qaeda anywhere in the world. During the bombing of Iraq , The Scotsman reported, "US law prohibits the targeted killing of foreign leaders Administration officials have been careful to say they will not expressly aim to kill Saddam. Frank Sauer and Niklas Schoernig have described targeted killing as a violation of international law and a contravention of domestic laws,  and maintain that the term itself is merely a legitimized euphemism for assassination.
The American Civil Liberties Union states in its website, "A program of targeted killing far from any battlefield, without charge or trial, violates the constitutional guarantee of due process. It also violates international law, under which lethal force may be used outside armed conflict zones only as a last resort to prevent imminent threats, when non-lethal means are not available. Targeting people who are suspected of terrorism for execution, far from any war zone, turns the whole world into a battlefield. The argument that this policy affords the public a sense of revenge and retribution could serve to justify acts both illegal and immoral.
Clearly, lawbreakers ought to be punished. Yet, no matter how horrific their deeds, as the targeting of Israeli civilians indeed is, they should be punished according to the law. David's arguments could, in principle, justify the abolition of formal legal systems altogether. In , Ibrahim Nafie criticized the U. For drone strikes to be effective, the United States must obtain consent from the host country they are operating in. Reforming U.
Finally, he recommends the United States work with international partners to establish rules and norms governing the use of drones. Harvard Law School Professors Gabriella Blum and Philip Heymann cite six potential hazards of targeted killings: First, the so-called Hydra effect , or the rise of more—and more resolute—leaders to replace those who were recently "decapitated. Daniel Byman, security studies professor at Georgetown University , argues that Washington must clarify its policies behind extrajudicial and extraterritorial killings, lest a nefarious precedent in international law is set.
That number includes over 50 senior leaders of al Qaeda and the Taliban--top figures who are not easily replaced. To avoid attracting drones, al Qaeda operates have avoided gathering in large numbers and mitigated use of electronic devices. Drones have turned al Qaeda's command and training structures into a liability, forcing the group to choose between having no leaders and risking dead leaders.
Audrey Kurth Cronin of George Mason University argues that while drones are tactically savvy, they have failed to advance the strategic goals of U. The problem for Washington today is that its drone program has taken on a life of its own, to the point where tactics are driving strategy rather than the other way around.
In this endless contest, the United States risks multiplying its enemies and heightening their incentives to attack the country.
Don't Kill One of Us by George H W Larsen | Waterstones
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Main articles: List of Iranian assassinations and Chain murders of Iran. Main article: Israeli targeted killings. See also: List of Israeli assassinations. The Guardian. Retrieved 22 July The New York Times. Yale University Press. Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 15 February Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 13 February Journal of Applied Philosophy.
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